Steroids overview

Before starting with anabolic steroids, it's advicable to understand how human body and its hormonal system works. We will talk about testosterone, the primary male sex hormone. Further, we will explain estrogen aromatization and DHT conversion. Once the anatomy part is explained, we wilmove on to anabolic steroids, their history, development, applications and side effects.

01. Introduction to Testosterone

Anabolic steroids are a class of medications that contain a synthetically manufactured form of the hormone testosterone, or a related compound that is derived from (or similar in structure and action to) this hormone. In order to fully grasp how anabolic steroids work, it is, therefore, important to understand the basic functioning of testosterone.

02. Direct and Indirect Anabolic Effects

Although testosterone has been isolated, synthesized, and actively experimented with for many decades now, there is still some debate today as to exactly how steroids affect muscle mass. At this point in time, the primary mode of anabolic action with all anabolic/androgenic steroids is understood to be direct activation of the cellular androgen receptor and increases in protein synthesis. As follows, if we are able to increase our androgen level from an external source by supplementing ...

03. Free vs. Bound Testosterone

A very small amount of testosterone actually exists in a free state, where interaction with cellular receptors is possible. The majority will be bound to the proteins SHBG (sex hormone binding globulin, also referred to as sex steroid binding globulin and testosterone-estradiol binding globulin) and albumin, which temporarily prevent the hormone from exerting activity. Steroid hormones actually bind much more avidly to SHBG than albumin (with approximately 1,000 times greater affinity), however ...

04. Estrogen Aromatization

Testosterone is the primary substrate used in the male body for the synthesis of estrogen (estradiol), the principal female sex hormone. Although the presence of estrogen may seem quite unusual in men, it is structurally very similar to testosterone. With a slight alteration by the enzyme aromatase, estrogen is produced in the male body. Aromatase activity occurs in various regions of the male body, including adipose, liver, gonadal, central nervous system, and skeletal muscle tissues. In the ...

05. DHT Conversion

As we see from our discussion with estrogen, in considering the physiological effects of any steroid, we must look at all of its active metabolites, and not just the initial compound. This includes not only estrogenic products, but androgenic metabolites as well. With this in mind, it is important to note that the potency of testosterone is considerably increased in many androgen responsive tissues when it converts todihydrotestosterone. More commonly referred to by the three-letter abbreviation ...

06. Brief History of Anabolic / Androgenic Steroids

While it had been clear for many centuries that the testicles were crucial for the male body to properly develop, it was not until modern times that an understanding of testosterone began to form. The first solid scientific experiments in this area, which eventually led to the discovery and replication of testosterone (and related androgens), were undertaken in the 1800s. During this century a number of animal experiments were published, most of which involved the removal and/or implantation of ...

07. Synthetic AAS Development

In order to develop products that would be effective therapeutically, chemists needed to solve a number of problems with using natural steroid hormones for treatment. For example, oral dosing was a problem, as our basic steroids testosterone, nandrolone, anddihydrotestosterone are ineffective when administered this way. The liver would efficiently break down their structure before reaching circulation, so some form of alteration was required in order for a tablet or capsule to be produced. Our ...

08. Synthetic AAS Chemistry

All anabolic/androgenic steroids are preparations containing one of the above three natural steroid hormones, or chemically altered derivatives thereof. In creating new synthetic compounds, one of the three natural hormones is selected as a starting point, typically due to the possession of particular traits that may be beneficial for the new compound. For instance, of the three natural steroids above,dihydrotestosterone is the only steroid devoid of the possibility of aromatization and 5-alpha ...

09. Steroid Nomenclature

Perhaps not obvious at first glance, there is a naming convention in place that was used to create identities for the various anabolic/androgenic steroid hormones. This typically involves create identities for the various anabolic/androgenic steroid hormones. This typically involves forming a root word to convey the structural base of the steroid, and signifying other unique structural characteristics by including appropriate prefixes or suffixes. Below, we will look at the common roots, ...

10. Clinical Applications

Anabolic/androgenic steroids are approved for sale by prescription in virtually every pharmaceutical market around the world. Having been applied for many decades to treat a variety of diseased states, today these drugs have a number of well-established medical uses. They have been used to treat most patient populations, including men and women of almost all ages, ranging from children to the elderly. In many instances anabolic/androgenic steroids have proven to be life saving medications, which ...

11. Acute Steroid Safety: Studies with Real-World Dosages

Few medicines have the type of stigma about them that anabolic/androgenic steroids do. If you mention the decision to use these drugs to the average person, you are likely to be lectured about the tremendous physical and psychological risks you are about to undertake; how your hair might fall out, your testicles will disappear, or the steroids will give you cancer. Or maybe you will just lose you mind to uncontrolled fits of psychotic rage, or suffer a lifethreatening heart attack. Clearly, the ...

12. The Endocrinology of Muscle Growth

The road to anabolic insight must include a biological understanding of what muscle growth actually entails. Often simplified by the term “protein synthesis”, muscle growth is actually a highly complex process involving much more than just building proteins from amino acids. Muscle hypertrophy, the correct scientific term for the way we adult humans build skeletal muscle, actually requires the fusion of new cells (called satellite cells) with existing muscle fibers. Since this discovery of ...

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