Kynoselen — heptaminol

Kynoselen is an injectable veterinary drug, currently produced by the international firm Vetoquinol. It contains a mixture of heptaminol, AMP (adenosine monophosphate), vitamin B-12, sodium selenite, magnesium aspartate, and potassium aspartate. This blend makes for a restorative “tonic” type drug, administered to protect an animal’s muscle mass and overall wellness after illness, injury, or trauma. It is most often used on horses, and is typically applied as an anti-catabolic after strenuous activity, or to help get an animal back on its feet after a debilitating infection/illness. At other times it is simply used to support the vitality of an animal that is otherwise healthy, but at the moment less than vigorous in its daily activities. In some cases it is even used for the very basic purpose of remedying a deficiency in vitamin B-12 or selenium intake. Bodybuilders are attracted to Kynoselen for its mild anabolic and lipolytic properties.

The principle active ingredient in Kynoselen is heptaminol, which is classified as an amino alcohol with myocardial stimulant and vasodilatory properties. It is also identified as an inotropic compound, which increases contractile strength, and minimizes fatigue, of skeletal muscles. It has demonstrated a specific ability to increase the differentiation of satellite muscle cells, a process that helps generate new muscle tissue (skeletal muscle growth). This same ingredient is also known to affect the release and uptake of norepinephrine (noradrenalin), increasing levels of this hormone/neurotransmitter in the blood. Since noradrenalin is an important regulator of lipolysis in humans, this allows heptaminol to impart some fat-loss effect. Adenosine triphosphate is also regarded as a key component of the product, and plays a role in the storage and release of energy. Overall, both the anabolic and lipolytic properties of Kynoselen are measurable when used in humans, but not dramatic. It is capable of imparting some increases in strength, muscle mass, and fat loss, but the results will not rival those of anabolic steroids. Still, being that this drug is legal in most jurisdictions, it remains an attractive alternative to anabolic steroids for many individuals.

Brand name Kynoselen, Amidrina, Cortensor, Hept-A-Myl, Heptamyl, Heptylon

Kynoselen History

Heptaminol, the principle active ingredient in Kynoselen, was first heavily investigated in clinical medicine during the early 1950s. It was soon developed into a prescription drug, and has since been sold by a series of drug manufacturers in many different parts of the world. Currently its most common therapeutic use is to treat orthostatic hypotension, which is a sudden drop in blood pressure upon standing. Various preparations containing heptaminol have been produced over the years, the most notable of which have included Amidrina (Italy), Cortensor (Belgium and Switzerland), Hept-A-Myl (USA), Heptamyl (Belgium and Switzerland), and Heptylon (France). Although a variety of human medications containing heptaminol have been in commerce for decades, these preparations were rarely of interest to athletes. Years later, under a far different medical setting, Western athletes were first introduced to the drug.

The French veterinary preparation Kynoselen would be the first heptaminol-containing drug to grab large-scale international attention, becoming popular among American bodybuilders and athletes during the latter part of the 1990s. This was some years subsequent to laws being passed that had increased the penalties for dealing in anabolic steroids. During this time, availability of the drugs had shifted, and for some buyers scarce supply and high legal risk made the drugs less attractive. Many athletes were becoming increasingly resourceful in finding other non-scheduled performance-enhancing drugs that could be purchased and used with less legal risk. Kynoselen was already known to athletes in Europe, and would quickly cross the Atlantic. By the year 2000, a number of exporters had set up operation to market the drug directly to American athletes. Today, Kynoselen remains unscheduled and widely available in the United States and many areas abroad.

How is Kynoselen Supplied

How Supplied: Kynoselen is most commonly supplied in a 100 mL multi-dose vial for injection. Active ingredients are heptaminol, disodic adenosine monophosphate, vitamin B12, selenium (sodium selenite), magnesium aspartate, and potassium aspartate

Structural Characteristics of Kynoselen

Heptaminol (supplied as heptaminol hydrochloride) is an amino alcohol with a structure of 6- amino-2-methylheptan-2-ol.

Kynoselen Administration

Kynoselen is not approved for use in humans. Prescribing guidelines are unavailable. An effective dosage for physique- or performance-enhancing purposes generally falls in the range of 1 mL weekly for every 25 pounds of bodyweight. This would mean that a 200lb bodybuilder would use around 8 mL per week. Due to high injection volume, some opt to take a lower dosage, injecting at the very least a 2 mL three times per week. At this dose, a single 100 mL vial would last about 16 weeks. At 8-10 mL per week a 100 mL bottle would last for 10 to 12 weeks. It is generally recommended to use the entire bottle once it has been opened, or discard any remaining drug that was not used during the cycle. As with all injectable drugs packaged in multi-dosed vials, contaminants will be introduced into the solution immediately once the seal is broken for the first injection.

Because it tends to increase noradrenalin levels, Kynoselen is also a mild stimulant. It is likely for this specific reason that its use has been banned by certain horseracing organizations. This means that one can expect certain stimulant-related side effects, especially when taking this drug in higher dosages. This includes rapid heartbeat, sweating, jitters, restlessness, increased blood pressure, or insomnia. A good rule of thumb used by bodybuilders to try and keep such side effects from becoming a problem is to never inject more than 2 mL per day. They may also want to start with an amount lower than the recommended dosage (determined by bodyweight), perhaps even half of this. The dose is then slowly increased, so that the peak level is reached only after three to four weeks of slow incremental increases.

Kynoselen Warnings

Individuals with high blood pressure or cardiovascular disease should not use Kynoselen.

Kynoselen Availability

Kynoselen usually sells for $75 to $100 per bottle at the retail level. It is not a controlled substance in the United States, and is likewise pretty easy to obtain locally or via mail order. Currently no significant fakes are known to exist. Given its abundance and low cost, counterfeits are not expected to be a significant problem anytime soon. It is also important to note that legitimate Kynoselen is a veterinary drug only, and has never been manufactured for human use.

References

Wlliam Llewellyn (2011) - Anabolics

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