The first human growth hormone preparations to be used in medicine were made from pituitary extracts of human origin. These are now commonly referred to as cadaver growth hormone preparations. Approximately 1 mg of hGH (a 1 day dose) could be obtained from each cadaver. The first successful treatment with human cadaver GH was reported in 1958. Soon after these medicines were introduced to market, and were sold in the U.S. until 1985. The Food and Drug Administration banned them that year after they had been linked to the development of Creutzfeldt-Jakob’s disease (CJD), a highly degenerative and ultimately fatal brain disorder, in a number of patients. The disease can be transmitted from one person to another under exceptional circumstances (usually blood transfusion or organ implantation are involved), and was likely caused by the extraction of hGH from infected cadavers. CJD has a very slow incubation period, and has been diagnosed anywhere from 4 to 30 years after therapy with growth hormone of cadaver origin. As of 2004 estimates, at least 26 patients that received cadaver GH drugs in the United States have been diagnosed with the disease. The overall incidence of this disease is less than 1%, as approximately 6,000 patients are documented to have received the medication.
The FDA approved the first synthetic human growth hormone drug in 1985. Synthesis produced a pure hormone without biological contamination, eliminating the possibility of CJD transmission. The drug approved was called somatrem (Protropin), and was based on a manufacturing technology developed by Genentech in 1979. Somatrem came at an important time given the removal of cadaver GH by the FDA that same year. This hormone is actually a slight variant of the hGH protein, but displays the same biological properties of the natural hormone. Protropin was initially very successful being it was the first synthetic GH product. By 1987, however, Kabi Vitrum (Sweden) had published methods for the production of pure synthetic somatropin with the exact amino acid sequence of endogenous growth hormone. It was also discovered that the unnatural structure of somatrem causes a much higher incidence of antibody reactions in patients, which can reduce drug efficacy. Somatropin would come to be viewed as a more reliable drug, and would dominate the global market within several years. Today, although somatrem products are still sold, somatropin retains the vast majority of hGH sales worldwide.
How is Somatropin Supplied
Somatropin is most commonly supplied in multi-dose vials containing a white lyophilized powder that requires reconstitution with sterile or bacteriostatic water before use. Dosage may vary widely from 1mg to 24mg or more per vial. Somatropin is also available as a stabile pre-mixed solution (Nutropin AQ) that is biologically equivalent to reconstituted somatropin.
Structural Characteristics of Somatropin
Somatropin is human growth hormone protein manufactured by recombinant DNA technology. It has 191 amino acid residues and a molecular weight of 22,125 daltons. It is identical in structure to human growth hormone of pituitary origin.
Do not freeze. Follow package insert for storage information. Refrigeration (2º to 8ºC, 35º to 46º F) may be required before and after reconstitution.
Somatropin Side Effects (General)
The most common adverse reactions to somatropin therapy are joint pain, headache, flu-like symptoms, peripheral edema (water retention), and back pain. Less common adverse reactions include inflammation of mucous membranes in the nose (rhinitis), dizziness, upper respiratory infection, bronchitis, tingling or numbness on the skin, reduced sensitivity to touch, general edema, nausea, sore bones, carpal tunnel syndrome, chest pain, depression, gynecomastia, hypothyroidism, and insomnia. The abuse of somatropin may cause diabetes, acromegaly (a visible thickening of the bones, most notably the feet, forehead, hands, jaw, and elbows), and enlargement of the internal organs. Due to the growth promotion effects of human growth hormone, this drug should not be used by individuals with active or recurring cancer.
Somatropin Side Effects (Impaired glucose tolerance)
Somatropin may reduce sensitivity to insulin and raise blood sugar levels. This may occur in individuals without preexisting diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance.
Somatropin Side Effects (Injection site)
The subcutaneous administration of somatropin may cause redness, itching, or lumps at the site of injection. It may also cause a localized decrease of adipose tissue, which may be compounded by the repeated administration at the same site of injection.
Somatropin is designed for subcutaneous or intramuscular administration. One milligram of somatropin is equivalent to approximately 3 International Units (3 IU). When used to treat adult onset growth hormone deficiency, the drug is commonly applied at a dosage of .005/mg/kg per day to .01mg/kg per day. This equates to roughly 1 IU to 3 IU per day for person of approximately 180-220 lbs. A long-term maintenance dosage is established after reviewing the patient’s IGF-1 levels and clinical response over time.
When used for physique- or performance-enhancing purposes, somatropin is usually administered at a dosage between 1 IU and 6 IU per day (2-4 IU being most common). The drug is commonly cycled in a similar manner to anabolic/androgenic steroids, with the length of intake generally being between 6 weeks and 24 weeks. The anabolic effects of this drug are less apparent than its lipolytic (fat loss) properties, and generally take longer periods of time and higher doses to manifest themselves.
Other drugs are commonly used in conjunction with somatropin in order to elicit a stronger response. Thyroid drugs (usually T3) are particularly common given the known effects of somatropin on thyroid levels, and may significantly enhance fat loss during therapy. Insulin is also commonly used with somatropin. Aside from countering some of the effects somatropin has on glucose tolerance, insulin can increase receptor sensitivity to IGF-1, and reduce levels of IGF binding protein-1, allowing for more IGF-1 activity (growth hormone itself also lowers IGF binding protein levels). Anabolic/androgenic steroids are also commonly taken with somatropin, in an effort to maximize potential muscle-building effects. Anabolic steroids may also further increase free IGF-1 levels via a lowering of IGF binding proteins. Note that the stacking of somatropin with thyroid drugs and/or insulin is usually approached with great care and caution, given that these are particularly strong medications with potentially serious or life threatening acute side effects.
Somatropin is produced by many different drug companies, and is distributed in virtually all developed countries. The most common brand names include Serostim (Serono), Saizen (Serono), Humatrope (Eli Lilly), Norditropin (novo nodisk), Omnitrope (Sandoz), and Genotropin (Pharmacia).
Somatropin products are high value targets for drug counterfeiting operations. Many counterfeits are highly deceptive in nature, and have been found in both illicit and legitimate drug distribution channels. Some counterfeit growth hormone products are made by relabeling vials of hCG, which bear a very close visual resemblance to somatropin. A home pregnancy test is sometimes used to help determine if hCG has been used to make a counterfeit hGH product. This test works by detecting hCG in the urine. A few days into a cycle with somatropin, the individual will take a 3-4 IU injection prior to bed. Upon rising, the pregnancy test will be used, and a positive result will indicate that an hCG counterfeit has been used. The powder in the vial of somatropin should also be in the form of a solid (lyophilized) disc. Do not take any product that contains loose powder.
Human Growth Hormone (GH) has been a subject of debate since I was a kid. Natural (endogenous) GH is produced by the pituitary gland. Children produce 2 i.u. "spurts" 4-7 times per day for 4-5 non-consecutive days during a 2-3 week period (during growth spurts). That would equal 32-70 i.u. in only a 4-5 day span. A healthy adult's pituitary releases only 0.5-1.5 i.u. daily.
Until the mid 1980's, the only available form of exogenous (occurring outside the body) GH was manufactured by taking the pituitary glands of dead corpses (like there are a lot of "live" corpses running around?) and grinding them up. (I am not joking!). The GH was then extracted and purified through a series of expensive procedures, packed and sold by prescription only for use by children suffering from stunted growth. About 1987, this form of GH was linked to a fatal brain disease called CREUTZFELD-JAKOB DISEASE, and removed from the market.
Enter Genetech and synthetic GH. The first synthetic GH was produced by genetically altering transformed mouse cells /Ecoli. Natural GH has a 191 amino acid sequence where as the Protropin brand of GH produced by Genetech contains 192 amino acids in its sequence. This may have the affect of causing the body to produce GH antibodies which deactivate the GH. Most synthetics now contain the normal 191 amino acid sequence, of which there are over a dozen available today.
GH has 3 effects any athlete desires: GH helps the body burn more adipose (fat) tissue by promoting the release of fatty acids to be used as energy. Normally at rest, the body uses about an equal division of fat and carbohydrate calories. When the endocrine system senses a low circulatory level of glucose, the hypothalamus-pituitary-axis (HPA) reacts by releasing GH. The GH then triggers (through a series of enzymic/chemical reactions) the release of fatty acids from adipose stores so metabolic energy requirements can be met. This means exogenous GH administration has been well documented to do the same.
GH has a very potent anabolic (protein synthesis/tissue building) effect. In exerting anabolic effects, it can cause both hyperplasia (an increase in the number of muscle cells) and muscular hypertrophy (the enlargement of muscle cells). This change in cell number is permanent and therefore means more cells to make bigger. GH also has an anabolic effect on soft tissues such as tendons, cartilage, and other connective tissue. This means old injuries repair and strength increases due to stronger connective tissue… both at an accelerated rate. It is a well known fact that GH is a powerful anti-catabolic agent (protein sparing). This effect has allowed modern bodybuilders to retain or even add significant lean mass tissue during calorie restricted periods (cutting phases) and become the shredded monsters of the new era.
When using GH many athletes were less than satisfied with their results. Most likely this was because they bought bogus GH. It was common to find GH for a hard-core pro bodybuilder cost about $35,000 or more, yearly. To test GH, most simply bought a pregnancy test kit, mix a vial of (hopefully) GH and place a drop or two in the test area. If the test result was “pregnant”..they had been screwed. Most pregnancy test kits test for elevated gonadoltropins (which HCG is and GH is not). For those few, whose bodies manufactured GH anti-bodies (and GH failed to work for you) sorry about your luck. GH, used properly, has overwhelmingly been renowned as a genetic equalizer if used for that purpose.
Any polled athlete chose to use GH as a performance enhancing drug should have first understand at least the basics of its actions.
GH itself is not responsible for the majority of the effects seen from GH use. Actually GH is only a precursor to the so-called "good stuff". When GH passes through the liver, it is converted into INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTORS (such as IGF-1). IGF-1 is a very active but unstable chemical, which is why the body waits until the last second to make it naturally. The liver has a limited capacity to convert excess GH into IGF-1 unless other chemical hormone levels are also elevated. Insulin, T-4/T-3 thyroid hormones, gonadotropins, androgens/anabolic hormones, and even estrogen and corticosteroids all play an important role in the positive effects of GH. So they too were often exogenously elevated in what was considered “the correct ratios” by the largest of the self administering athletes. For the liver to convert high levels of GH to IGF-1 several times a day and cause a high quality anabolic response, it was commonly noted that T-3 thyroid hormone and insulin also needed be increased to accomplish the desired effect. Triacana may be strong enough to increase thyroid activity, but Cytomel was considered to be a better choice. Though some seemed to disagree, most emphatically believed that a fast-acting insulin such as HUMULIN-R or Humalog was a better and safer choice of exogenous insulin since they allowed better timing and have a much shorter effective period. This allowed the athletes to time insulin activity with the active period of GH at the optimum absorption times such as upon waking and the first few hours after a workout. The result was less chance of fat accumulation and a heightened anabolic response. Since GH suppresses natural T-3 thyroid hormone release, the exogenous administration of Triacana or Cytomel allowed for an elevated calorie intake that was utilized more for building muscle and soft tissue than for adipose tissue storage. Many pro bodybuilders used Clenbuterol and/or ephedrine stacks with GH while dieting. Since Clenbuterol and Ephedrine both suppress natural insulin release, they usually stacked the GH and Clenbuterol /Ephedrine with a synthetic T-3 thyroid hormone and sometimes with insulin as well. The use of insulin was dependent upon whether it was a bulking or dieting phase and depending on how their body responded to exogenous insulin use.
*I can not stress enough how dangerous insulin use can be. Comas and death are quite possible if used wrong. If you wish to use it, please see a doctor for monitoring.
AAS and/or Clenbuterol further enhance the anabolic effects of GH. From all but a few polled it was reported that excellent muscle mass gains resulted with the use of GH when other chosen hormone levels were also met (*also see "cycles") and one could afford it. Also, beware of fake GH. It is more common than you may realize. It is an illegal drug and the black market is not always honest.
The question of dosage was a big one. For the purpose of stunted growth manufacturers of GH (due to pituitary hyophysially caused stunted growth) state 0.3 i.u. weekly per LB of body weight. So for a 235 LB bodybuilder that would equal 70.5 i.u. weekly, meaning a daily total of about 10-i.u. However, even 2-3i.u. daily did produce some nice results over a 6-8 week period when the other reported hormone requirements were met as well. Short high dosage burst cycles too were noted to create these results (which will be discussed later) by the more elite of those polled.
*GH is medically administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously (under the skin).
*When multiple injections were utilized, I personally noted better results with subcutaneous administration.
*1-mg=2.7 i.u. of GH and some products are listed as such.
With exception of those few whose insert states otherwise, the dry unmixed GH substance maybe stored at room temperature. Once the solution has been mixed with the dry GH powder, (SWIRLED, DO NOT SHAKEN) the mixture must be refrigerated and lasts for 24-hours before it begins to degrade. An interesting product has become available called DEPO-NUTROPIN that has an active-life of about a month. This would allow for fewer injections and a reduced price. Also, several patents run out this year so many overseas and less expensive GH preparation will soon be available in the U.S. by prescription only.
*Though no negative side effects were reported, the available literature does list several serious ones: Kidneys and heart enlargement, high blood pressure, diabetes, thyroid hormone deficiency, and acromegaly. For the most part, they are rare to say the least and usually would be from extreme dosages and lengths of cycles. But like most hormones, you just do not know until it is a fact for you. Kind of scary, huh?
When GH was utilized with an insulin protocol, it was considered important to space injection periods between GH and insulin about an hour. Also if GH was utilized only twice daily, it was reported best to avoid natural high points of GH release such as first thing in the a.m., post-work out, and right before bed. This was if GH was utilized without insulin.
Anabolic Steroid Guide reference
Ihave seen this article on HGH many times on numerous boards and i imagine a good deal of you have already as well. though i couldnt recall seeing it on our beloved AF so i thought i would post it. not sure who the origianl author was so i cant give credit out - regardless i think its a good read and pretty informative.
Rating: (1 being the lowest, 5 being the highest)
- Weight Gain-4
- Fat Loss-4
- Side Effects-2
- Keep Gains--4
- Hypoglycemia- due to lowered insulin levels.
- Aromeglia- (abnormal bone growth) GH does not cause it, but if you are predisposed to it, it will speed it
- GH gut- if predisposed and taking large doses of GH
- Carpel Tunnel Syndrome
- Soreness in Joints
Benefits of GH:
- New Muscle Cells
- Mood Enhancement
- Smoothing and improving the skin
- Leanness, it is a potent fat burner
- Joint and ligament strengthening
Where to Inject, How, and How to Make:
You can site inject anywhere you can reach the subcutaneous layer. Pinch the flesh and pull back, then insert the needle in the "pocket" underneath. Doesn't absorb quick enough if you inject into the adipose tissue. Do not inject intra-muscular, though it can be done, it is not recommended. GH is a site injection, where it is shot is where it will burn the most noticeable fat. Most people do it in the stomach since that is a typical sub q shot with most of the fat being in that area. GH should be kept in a fridge; freezing will destroy the GH. On your kit it probably says to use the kit in 18-24 hours, remember these are for AIDS patients, not bodybuilders or athletes. Mixing the GH can either be done with sterile water or bacteriostic water. The kit with water will be fine for 3 days in the fridge, even with the sterile water, but you should not take this chance, rather you should use bacteriostic water and play it safe. This will keep it fine for a couple of weeks. When mixing the GH, let the water slide down the side as to not pulverize the GH wafer. Do not spray it directly against the wafer with any force. Before reconstitution and even after GH is fragile!!! Also once the water is injected into the bottle gently swirl the vial to reconstitute, do not shake or swirl violently!!!!
1 ml = 1 cc -/+
100 units per 1 cc
6 mg = 18iu
1 ml = 18iu
.50 ml = 9iu
.25 ml = 4.5iu
Some people choose to only do it in ccs but here is how you can do it in units on a slin dart
5.5 = 1iu, so 2iu = 11 on a slin dart
Differences Between Kits:
The main difference between kits is how many ius they make when reconstituted. For example, Serostim re-constitutes to make 126iu, while a Saizen kit.... also made by Serono.... makes up 15iu. Another of their kits makes 54iu. It better be way cheaper than a Serostim kit! Humatrope is fine, but costs too much. The other main concern would be fakes; Lilly is the most often faked one. Some older GH kits do not have holograms on them and are legit, but they are usually only less than 100 dollars than new GH kits with holograms, and I would rather be assured of the hologram and legitimacy of the kit. Best buy currently is Serostim 126 iu kits. These are made for people with wasting diseases like AIDs. Many of these patients got infected because they are IV drug addicts..........they sell the Serostim on the street for drug money.
4 to 6 iu ed is sufficient. Most people take it 5 days on 2 days off at their designated dosage. There is no reason or evidence why you cannot stay on for various lengths of time; there is no need to go 5 on 2 off other than cost. Considering that our natural production is only .5 to 1.5iu a day, this is still a huge bump for the body. Research has shown that the body's natural defense systems render mega doses of GH ineffective, anyway. GH does not cause gains in mass...it allows you to put on a great deal of lean mass in combination with proper steroid and insulin use. The user before taking must know this. One or two kits are not enough, you need at least 3 to make you happy, GH takes a while to make its effects, but remember they are long lasting, what you see is what you keep. It takes 6 to 8 weeks to notice a dramatic change in body comp using GH on an ED or 5/2 split. Lighter doses for long periods of time are better than large doses for short cycles. Like any other drug, the more you take the more the benefits, but likewise also more risks. 4-6 iu is a standard dose but many people take more, the most repulsing side effects happen at or beyond 12 iu a day but like anything else it depends on your predisposition for it.
How to Stack:
GH is best taken in conjunction with insulin, anabolic steroids, and t3. Insulin is extremely effective with GH, as anyone here who has tried it will testify. This is because GH injections cause a down regulation of insulin sensitivity in the body. GH alone causes little growth of lean mass, however, when combined with insulin and steroids (and IGF-1 if you can find it), the results can be down right remarkable...esp. in the older bodybuilder. Start light with the humulin...5iu...and work up 1 iu a day till you get use to it. 7 to 10iu in the AM and 7 to 10 iu in the late afternoon, with split doses of GH is your best bet. When splitting GH/insulin doses, I use mid-morning and late afternoon after lifting.... both flat times in our natural GH production. The insulin overcomes the insulin-resistance caused by exogenous GH supplementation. If you are scared to take insulin thought, then Gh with Test and Glucophage is good. GH is good for cutting if used alone. Glucophage allows for improved glucose and amino acid absorption by the muscle tissue and does it safely. This is what you want. The half-life of GH is only 2 hours so spread it out. Avoid bedtime injections since we produce the bulk of our own GH in the first two hours of sleep. Since exogenous GH suppresses this, you should not take it before bed. For best results, use a 17aa oral during the cycle to stimulate the release of natural insulin growth factors. I would run the test throughout. GH/insulin/test is the proven synergistic combination. It is also wise to preload with testosterone before starting GH if you are going to do it. You should preload with the amount of time it takes for that testosterone to kick in, since most of us take longer acting esters for testosterone you should usually start taking the test 2 weeks before GH use. Likewise, you can accommodate it to fit your needs; the key is for the test to be kicking in the same time you are starting to run your GH. You can cycle you steroids however you want to depending on your goals, if you are going for a more massive look than you would run insulin for most of the cycle and use high androgens, but if you are looking for additional leanness at the end of a cycle you should stop the androgens and run a higher dose of GH or run less androgens. T3 is also another substance that should be used during GH cycling since GH lowers thyroid hormones. T3 should be used for shorter periods though, because it can permanently alter the endocrine system. The magic of GH for men is the ability to gain mass without fat or bloating when stacked properly with insulin, and steroids. GH also makes for amazing improvements in skin...smoothes wrinkles, burns stubborn spots of adipose tissue, gives that paper-thin contest look...and also gives one a real mood lift, a feeling of well being.
Major Difference Between GH and Steroids:
Steroids can increase the size of your muscle cells, but cannot I repeat CAN NOT increase the number of muscle cells in your body, which to start with is governed by your genetics. However Growth hormone CAN increase the number of muscle cells in your body, which goes beyond genetics.
Half-Life of GH:
Exogenous (injected) GH has a "half-life" of approximately 2 hours . . . a 4-hour period of activity during which there is a suppression of naturally produced GH.
GH Naturally Produced:
We release the most of our naturally produced GH during the first two hours of deep sleep...you may take a little time to adjust.... your body thinks you should be in bed when that big influx hits. It is good to take a nap, thats when you grow anyway. It always helps to take naps after workouts and injections everyday.
GH Causing Acromeglia:
Acromeglia is a disease...you either have it or you don't. Supplementing GH will not cause it. Persons suffering from acromeglia, like Andre the Giant, lack the natural defense mechanisms of the body to regulate the production and effects of GH secretion in he pituitary. It is well established in the medical literature that exogenous GH will not cause the disease.... of course it would worsen the condition in those who had it.
GH Gut: Myth or Reality?:
Some researchers claim that any gains in weight experienced by subjects using GH alone was due to growth of internal organs and connective tissue, which could cause some problems. Most studies do not agree with this theory and consider "GH gut" to be a myth. Some people are allergic to synthetic test, this is something you have to find out for yourself. Some people also feel intestinal discomfort from time to time, if so take it down to one item at a time to see what is causing you discomfort; creatine, glutamine, protein products, orals, and dirty gear have all been known to cause this, so find the problem early.
GH and IGF-1:
Perhaps the most relevant effect of IGF-1 is the ability of IGF-1 to increase protein synthesis by increasing cellular mRNA formation (mRNA makes protein) as well as increasing uptake of amino acids. This effect on protein synthesis can lead to increased lean mass. The research indicates that this effect is dependent on GH presence as well. So IGF-1 alone does not promote such effects. Nor does GH. It appears the combination of the two most consistently lead to increased protein synthesis.
GH and IGF-1 are negative regulators of GH release so an increase in either (from a GH injection) reduces the secretion of GH. IGF-1 is very difficult to obtain in a useable condition.... it must be handled very gently and have bee kept at a rather precise temperature at all times. One can stimulate IGF production through the use of an oral steroid during cycle. Dbol, for example, causes a rather extensive release of IGF during the first pass through the liver.
The leading studies in this area:
(Ney, 1999, Yarasheski, 1994.... Am J. App. Phys.) In the Yarasheski study, no increase in lean muscle mass was noticed in the subjects using GH alone, but significant gains were found in subjects that supplemented with IGF and GH...add in the steroids and look out! Yarasheski studied weight trained athletes, supplementing one group with GH alone, and one group with GH and IGF. "So IGF-1 alone does not promote such effects. (Leanness and increased lean mass) Nor does GH. It appears the combination of the two most consistently lead to increased protein synthesis." Both seem to negatively downregulate the other over time, so as to lead to diminishing returns. Cycling would be in order for that reason. Also supplementing both is necessary because one or the other alone will suppress the natural production of the non-supplemented Latest study by Yarashevski - with GH alone...8 to 12% change in lean body composition. 6% increase in muscle mass.
HGH - Human Growth Hormone (Profile)
"Wow, is this great stuff. It is the best drug for permanent muscle gains. This is the only drug that can remedy bad genetics, as it will make anybody grow. GH use is the biggest gamble that an athlete can take, as the side effects are irreversible. Even with all that, we LOVE the stuff." (Daniel Duchaine, Underground Steroid Handbook, 1982.)
As with no other doping drug, growth hormones are still surrounded by an aura of mystery. Some call it a wonder drug which causes gigantic strength and muscle gains in the shortest time. Others con-sider it completely useless in improving sports performance and ar-gue that it only promotes the growth process in children with an early stunting of growth. Some are of the opinion that growth hor-mones in adults cause severe bone deformities in the form of over-growth of the lower jaw and extremities. And, generally speaking, which growth hormones should one take -the human form, the synthetically manufactured version, recombined or genetically pro-duced form- and in which dosage? All this controversy about growth hormones is so complex that the reader must have some basic information in order to understand them. The growth hor-mone is a polypeptide hormone consisting of 191 amino acids. In humans it is produced in the hypophysis and released if there are the right stimuli (e.g. training, sleep, stress, low blood sugar level). It is now important to understand that the freed HGH (human growth hormone) itself has no direct effect but only stimulates the liver to produce and release insulin-like growth factors and so-matomedins. These growth factors are then the ones that cause various effects on the body The problem, however, is that the liver is only capable of producing a limited amount of these substances so that the effect is limited. If growth hormones are injected they only stimulate the liver to produce and release these substances and thus, as already mentioned, have no direct effect.
During the mid 1980's only the human, biologically-active form was available as exogenous sour-cc of intake. It was obtained from the hypophysis of dead corpses, an expensive and costly procedure. In 1985 the intake of human growth hormones was linked with the very rare Creutzfeld-Jakob disease, an invariably fatal brain disease characterized by progressive dementia. In response, manufacturers removed this version from the market. Today, human growth hor-mones are no longer available for injection. Fortunately, science has not been asleep and has developed the synthetic growth hormone which is genetically produced either from Escherichia coli (E coli) or from the transformed mouse cell line. It has been available in nu-merous countries for years (see list with Trade Names .
The use of these STH somatotropic hormone compounds offers the athlete three performanceenhancing effects. STH (somatotropic hormone) has a strong anabolic effect and causes an increased pro-tein synthesis which manifests itself in a muscular hypertrophy (enlargement of muscle cells) and in a muscular hyperplasia (in-crease of muscle cells.) The latter is very interesting since this in-crease cannot be obtained by the intake of steroids. This is probably also the reason why STH is called the strongest anabolic hormone. The second effect of STH is its pronounced influence on the burning of fat. It turns more body fat into energy, leading to a drastic reduc-tion in fat or allowing the athlete to increase his caloric intake. Third, and often overlooked, is the fact that STH strengthens the connective tissue, tendons, and cartilages, which could be one of the main reasons for the significant increase in strength experienced by many athletes. Several bodybuilders and powerlifters report that through the simultaneous intake with steroids STH protects the athlete from injuries while increasing his strength. You will say that this sounds just wonderful. What is the problem, however, since there are still some who argue that STH offers nothing to athletes? There are, by all means, several athletes who have tried STH and who were sadly disappointed by its results. However, as with many things in life, there is a logical explanation or perhaps even more than one:
- The athlete simply has not taken a sufficient amount of STH regularly and over a long enough period of time. STH is a very expensive compound and an effective dosage is unaffordable by most people.
- When using STH the body also needs more thyroid hormones, insulin, corticosteroids, gonadotropins, estrogens and - what a surprise! - androgens and anabolics. This is also the reason why STH, when taken alone, is considerably less effective and can only reach its optimum effect by the additive intake of steroids, thyroid hormones, and insulin, in particular. But we must point out in this case that STH has a predominately anabolic effect. There are three hormones which are needed at the same time in order to allow for maximum anabolic effect. These are STH, insulin, and an LT-3 thyroid hormone, such as, for example, Cytomel. Only then can the liver produce and release an optimal amount of somatomedin and insulin-like growth factors. This anabolic effect can be further enhanced by taking a substance with an anticatabolic effect. These substances are---everybody should probably know by nowanabolic/ androgenic steroids or Clenbuterol. Then a synergetic effect takes place. Are you still wondering why pro bodybuilders are so incredibly massive but, at the same time, totally ripped while you are not? It is "Polypharmacy at its finest," as W Nathaniel Phillips described to the point in his bookAnabolic Reference Guide (5th Issue, 1990). But coming back once more to the "anabolic formula": STH, insulin, and L-T3. Most athletes have tried STH during preparation for a competition in that phase when the diet is calorie-reduced. The body usually reacts by reducing the release of insulin and of the L- T3 thyroid hormone. And, as was described under point 2, this is not an advantageous condition when STH is expected to work well. Well, we almost forgot. Those who combine Clenbuterol with STH should know that Clenbuterol (like Ephedrine) reduces the body's own release of insulin and L-T3. True, this seems a little complicated and when reading it for the first time it might be a little confusing; however it really is true: STH has a significant influence on several hormones in the human body; this does not allow for a simple ad-ministration schedule. As said, STH is not cheap and those who intend to use it should know a little more about it. If you only want to burn fat with STH you will only have to remember user infor-mation for the part with the L-T3 thyroid hormone as is printed by Kabi Pharmacia GmbH for their compound Genotropin: "The need of the thyroid hormone often increases during treatment with growth hormones. "
- Since most athletes who want to use STH can only obtain it if prescribed by a physician, the only supply source remains the black market. And this is certainly another reason why some athletes might not have been very happy with the effect of the purchased com-pound. How could he, if cheap HCG was passed off as expensive STH? Since both compounds are available as dry substances, all that would be needed is a new label of Serono's Saizen or Lilly's Humatrope on the HCG ampule. It is no longer fun when somebody is paying $200 for 5000 I.U. of HCG, only worth $12, and thinking that he just purchased 4 I.U. of STH. And if you think this happens only to novices and to the ignorant, ask Ben Johnson. "Big Ben," who during three tests within five days showed an above-limit testosterone level, was not a victim of his own stupidity but more likely the victim of fraud. 'According to statistics by the German Drug Administration, 42% of the HGH vials confiscated on the North American black market are fakes." (Der Spiegel, no. 11, 1993.) One can only say, "Poor Ben." Even Deutsche Apothekerzeitung is aware of this problem. The magazine wrote in its issue no. 26 of 07/01/93 in the article "Wachstumshormon--Praparate: Arzneimittelf5lschungen in Bodybuilder-Szene": "The currentlyknown cases are traded with Dutch or Russian labels... in addition to a display of labels in the Dutch or Russian lan-guage the fakes are distinguished from the original product, in-sofar as the dry substance is not present as lyophilic but present as loose powder. The fakes confiscated so far use the name "Humatrope 16" under the name of Lilly Company (with Dutch denomination) or "Somatogen" (in Russian)." Nowhere can this much money be made except by faking STH. Who has ever held original growth hormones in his hand and known how.they should look?
- In a few very rare cases the body reacts by developing-antibodies to the exogenous STH, thus making it ineffective.
Before discussing the extremely difficult matter of dosage and intake the following question suggests itself: Generally speaking who is taking growth hormones? A whole lot of athletes as the following quotation suggests: "Charlie Francis, the Canadian athletic trainer of Ben Johnson tells how he improved the performance of Ben and numerous other Olympic athletes by the use of growth hormones in 1983. Francis also had conclusive evidence that the U.S.-American field and track athletes were using growth hormones. In a 1989 interview with a pro bodybuilder, an interview not meant for publication, this massive athlete made clear that he was convinced that almost all professional top athletes were using Protropin. He also said that it did not bother him if the IFBB were to introduce doping tests for men in 1990 as long as there would be no testing for growth hormones (Anabolic Reference Update, June 1989, no. 11). "it is highly suspected that the top Ms. 0 competitors use this product to help them attain their incredibly rippled muscles while still looking like women." (Anabolic Reference Guide, 5th Issue, 1990, W N. Phillips.) Most top bodybuilders using Growth Hormone (GH) feel that insulin activates it. One top pro was rumored to have been using 12 I. U. of GH per day in preparation for his last WBF contest. He swears that GH only works with insulin." (Muscle Media 2000 ' October/ November 1993, no. 34.)" And shortly before the 1984 Olympic Games in Los Angeles, U.S. researchers succeeded in synthetically manufacturing the hormone. This hormone which cannot be detected with current testing methods immediately prepared American athletes throughout the country for the games in California. After reports of success the drug became the secret runner on the doping market. The football pro Lyle Alzado, who died of brain tumor, shortly before his death confessed that he had taken HGH for 16 weeks - and he claimed that 80% of all American football pros do so, too. Ben Johnson, who in 1988 in Seoul was caught with anabolics, admitted to the investigating committee of the Canadian government that he had tried the Growth Hormone. He had paid $ 10,000 for ten bottles of HGH. According to Johnson, his physician, George Astaphan, had also designed programs for his colleagues Mark McKoy, Angella Issajenko, and Desai Williams. Hurdle sprinter Juli Rochelean who toddy runs records for Switzerland under the name Baumann procured HGH on the black market of the bodybuilder scene in Montreal... Among women Gail Devers won the 100 meters (1992 Olympic Games in Barcelona, the auth.) after havingjust overcome a severe thyroid condition, a well-known side effect of taking HGH. Such suspicions are reinforced by current market data. The two U.S. companies Genentech and Eli Lilly produced about 800 million dollars of HGH in 1992. Genentech alone reported an eleven percent production increase compared to last year. Chemists incessantly emphasize that the drug should only be manufactured for use by persons with stunted growth. The U.S.Food and Drug Administration, however, sees it differently: the U.S. government currently includes HGH on the list of forbidden drugs and 'threatens up to five years of,prison for illegal possession of the drug." (Der Spiegel, no. I I of 03/15/93). "Many of the top strength athletes use HGH and the cost of its use ran as high as $30,000/year for one particular pro bodybuilder. Short term users (8 week duration) will spend up to $150 per daily dosage. And because the top athletes are rumored to use it, HGH lust in the lower ranks has become more rampant." (Daniel Duchaine, Underground Steroid Handbook 2.)
The question of the right dosage, as well as the type and duration of application, Is very difficult to duration of application, Is very difficult to 63 answer. Since there is no scientific research showing how STH should be taken for performance improvement, we can only rely on empirical data, that is experimental values. The respective manufacturers indicate that in cases of hypophysially stunted growth due to lacking or insufficient release of growth hormones by the hypophysis, a weekly average dose of 0.3 I.U./week per pound of body weight should be taken. An athlete weighing 200 pounds, therefore, would have to inject 60 I.U. weekly. The dosage would be divided into three intramuscular injections of 20 I.U. each. Subcutaneous injections (under the skin) are another form of intake which, however, would have to be injected daily, usually 8 I.U. per day. Top athletes usually inject 4-16 I.U~day. Ordinarily, daily subcutaneous injections are preferred Since STH has a half-life time of less than one hour, it is not surprising that some athletes divide their daily dose into three or four subcutaueous injections of 2-4 I.U. each. Application of regular, small dosages seems to bring the most effective results. This also has its reasons: When STH is injected, serum concentration in the blood rises quickly, meaning that the effect is almost immediate. As we know, STH stimulates the liver to produce and release somatomedins and insulin-like growth factors which in turn effect the desired results in the body. Since the liver can only produce a limited amount of these substances, we doubt that larger STH injections will induce the liver to produce instantaneously a larger quantity of somatomedins and insulin-like growth factors. it seems more likely that the liver will react more favorably to smaller dosages.
If the STH solution is injected subcutaneously several consecutive times at the same point of injection, a loss of fat tissue is possible. Therefore, the point of injection, or even better, the entire side of the body, should be continuously changed in order to avoid a loss of local fat tissue (lipoathrophy) in the injection cell. One thing has manifested itself over the years: The effect of STH is dosage-dependent. This means either invest a lot of money and do it right or do not even begin. Half-hearted attempts are condemned to failure. Minimum effective dosages seem to start at 4 I.U. per day. For comparison: the hypophysis of a healthy, adult releases 0.5-1.5 I.U. growth hormones daily. The duration of intake usually depends on the athlete's financial resources. Our experience is that STH is taken over a prolonged period, from at least six weeks to several months. It is interesting to note that the effect of STH does not stop after a few weeks; this usually allows for continued improvements at a steady dosage. Bodybuilders who have had positive results with STH have reported that the built-up strength and, in particular, the newlygained muscle system were essentially maintained after discontinuance of the product. The American physician, Dr. William N. Taylor, confirms this statement in his book Anabolic Steroids and the Athlete, where on page 75 he writes: "Evidence for increased muscle number (hyperplasia) in athletes stems from their statements that the increased muscular size and strength remain after the HGH therapy has been discontinued. In fact, there may be further muscular size and strength gains as the training-induced hypertrophy continues in the month beyond."
It remains to be clarified what happens with the insulin and LT-3 thyroid hormone. Athletes who take - STH in their build-up phase usually do not need exogenous insulin. It is recommended, in this case, that the athlete eats a complete meal every three hours, result ing in 6-7 meals daily. This causes the body to continuously release insulin so that the blood sugar level does not fall too low. The use of LT-3 thyroid hormones, in this phase, is carried out reluctantly by athletes. In any case, you must have a physician check the thyroid hormone level during the intake of STH. Simultaneous use of ana bolic/androgenic steroids and/or Clenbuterol is usually appropri ate. During the preparation for a competition the use of thyroid hormones steadily increases. Sometimes insulin is taken together with STH, as well as with steroids and Clenbuterol. Apart from the high damage potential that exogenous insulin can-have in non-diabetics, incorrect use will simply and plainly make you FAT! Too much insulin activates certain enzymes which convert glucose into glycerol and finally into triglyceride. Too little insulin, especially dur ing a diet, reduces the anabolic effect of STH. The solution to this dilemma- Visiting a qualified physician who advises the athlete during this undertaking and who, in the event of exogenous in sulin supply, checks the blood sugar level and urine periodically. According to what we have heard so far, athletes usually inject intermediately-effective insulin having a maximum duration of effect of 24 hours once a day. Human insulin such as Depot-H Insulin Hoechst is generally used. Briefly-effective insulin with a maximum duration of effect of eight hours is rarely used by athletes. Again a human insulin such as H-Insulin Hoechst is preferred.
The undesired effect of growth hormones, the so-called side effects, are also a very interesting and hotly-discussed issue. Above all it must be said: STH has none of the typical side effects of anabolic/ androgenic steroids including reduced endogenous testosterone production, acne, hair loss, aggressiveness, elevated estrogen level, virilization symptoms in women, and increased water and salt retention. The main side effects that are possible with STH are an abnormally small concentration of glucose in the Wood (hypoglycemia) and an inadequate thyroid function. In some cases antibodies against growth hormones are developed but are clinically irrelevant. What about the horror stories about Acromegaly, bone deformation, heart enlargement, organ conditions, gigantism, and early death- In order to answer this question a clear differentiation must be made between humans before and after puberty. The growth plates in a person continue to grow in length until puberty. After puberty neither an endogenous hypersection of growth hormones nor an excessive exogenous supply of STH can cause additional growth in the length of the bones. Abnormal size (gigantism) initially goes hand in hand with remarkable body strength and muscular hardness in the afflicted; later, if left untreated, it ends in weakness and death. Again, this is only possible in pre-pubescent humans who also suffer from an inadequate gonadal function (hypogonadism). Humans who suffer from an endogenous hypersecretion after puberty and whose normal growth is completed can also suffer from Acromegaly. Bones become wider but not longer. There is a progressive growth in the hands and feet, and enlargement of features due to the growth of the lower jaw and nose. Heart muscle and kidneys can also gain in weight and size. In the beginning all of this goes hand in hand with increased body strength and muscular hardness; it ends, however, in fatigue, weakness, diabetes, heart conditions, and early death.
What the authorities like to do now is to present extreme cases of athletes suffering from these malfunctions in order to discourage others and to drum into athletes the fact that with the exogenous supply of growth hormones they would suffer the same destiny This, however, is very unlikely, as reality has proven. Among the numerous athletes using STH comparatively few are seven feet tall Neanderthalers with a protruded lower jaw, deformed skull, clawlike hands, thick lips, and prominent bone plates who walk around in size 25 shoes in order to avoid any misunderstandings, we do not want to disguise the possible risks of exogenous STH use in adults and healthy humans, but one should at least try to be open-minded. Acromegaly, diabetes, thyroid insufficiency, heart muscle hypertrophy, high blood pressure, and enlargement of the kidneys are theoretically possible if STH is used excessively over prolonged periods of time; however, in reality and particularly when it comes to the external attributes, these are rarely present. Tests have shown no causal relation between treatment with somatropin and a possible higher risk of leukemia. Some athletes report headaches, nausea, vomiting, and visual disturbances during the first weeks of intake. These symptoms disappear in most cases even with continued intake. The most common problems with STH occur when the athlete intends to inject insulin in addition to STH. We know two competing German bodybuilders who, because of improper insulin injections, fell into comas lasting several weeks.
The substance somatropin is available as a dried powder and before injecting it must be mixed with the enclosed solution-containing ampule. The ready solution must be injected immediately or stored in the refrigerator for up to 24 hours. It is usually recommended that the compound be stored in the refrigerator. With the exception of the remedy Saizcn the biological activity of growth hormones is usually not impaired when storing the dry substance at 15-25C (room temperature); however, a cooler place (2-8 C is preferable. On the black market the price for 4 I.U. each of the compounds Genotropin, Humatrope, Norditropin, and Saizen, in Europe is $80 - 120 for a prick-through vial including the solution ampule. As already mentioned, there are many fakes. It is noted that for the U.S.-American growth hormone compounds, the substance con tent is not given in 1-U. (International Units) but in mg (milligrams). Since I mg corresponds to exactly 2.7 I.U. the 5 mg solution of the compound Humatrope by Lilly contains exactly 13.5 I.U. of Somatropin. The 10 mg solution of the Protropin compound by Genentech therefore contains 27 I.U. of Somatropin. In American powerlifting and bodybuilding circles Humatrope is usually preferred over Protropin. The reason is that Humatrope is synthesized from a chain of 191 amino acids and thus is identical to the amino acid sequence of the human growth hormone. Protropin, on the other hand, consists of 192 amino acids, one amino acid too many. This might be the explanation for why more antibodies are developed with Protropin than with Humatrope. Growth hormones are on the doping list but they are not yet detectable during doping tests.
Newbies Research Guide reference
The use of exogenous sources of Growth Hormone has been popular in the United States for almost 8 years now. Originally, pituitary glands of cadavers. Ascellacrin and Crescormon were the two most popular brand names on this original GH. While production was under way on the synthetic, recombinant DNA versions of this drug, it was discovered that the biologically active form was associated with the formation of a rare brain virus called Creutzveldt Jacob Disease. This was a fatal virus that afflicted a very small number of GH users, none of whom were athletes. In light of this discovery, the FDA removed all of these natural GH versions from the market in the United States. Luckily, the synthetic recombinant versions were approved by the FDA a short time afterwards. These versions were developed after years of experiments with amino acid chains. The first of these versions was patented and produced by Genentech Labs with the brand name Protropin. A short time later, another form of synthetic growth Hormone gained FDA approval. It was produced by Eli Lilly Labs and brand named Humatrope. This product was allowed to be patented because it was shown to be unique in that it contained a slightly different amino acid chain than the Protropin. The difference was that Humatrope had 191 amino acid chains in sequence and Protropin had 192. For some very complicated reasons, the 191 amino acid configuration has been shown to be more effective. It had been speculated that these synthetic versions of GH would greatly improve the cost effectiveness of using GH, yet that has not been the case. An athlete who wants to do a cycle of GH can still expect to be out as much as $4000 a month. There are numerous versions of Growth Hormone available in Europe, the majority of which are made up of the 191 amino acid sequence. There is even a form of the original human extract Growth Hormone, called Grorm which is available in a few countries. Although this drug is indicated for the treatment of pituitary deficient dwarfism, it has been used extensively by athletes who are attempting to alter their body composition. Growth Hormone itself, is an endoge- nous hormone produced by the pituitary gland. It exists at especially high levels during the teen years when it promotes growth of almost all tissues. It also con- tributes to the deposition of protein and promotes the breakdown of fat for use as energy. As the body reaches full maturation, the endogenous levelsof GH are substantially deminished. After this, GH is still present in the body but at a substantially lower level where it continues to aid in protein synthesis, RNA and DNA reactions and the conversion of body fat to energy. By introducing an exogenous source of this hormone, athletes are hoping to promote these effects, causing the body to deposit more muscle tissue while at the same time reducing body fat stores.
On paper, GH should work exceptionally well; however, it does not seem to be delivering up to its potential. Most athletes who have experimented with this product end up being disappointed. There is some evidence that exogenous sources of GH are being destroyed by antibodies which appear after the introduc- tion of the synthetic compound. Although the 191 amino acid sequence versions have been shown to produce less of an antibody reaction, they are still not yielding consistent results. I have speculated as to whether the introduction of exogenous GH would yield an appreciable degree of efficacy simply due to the fact that the body does not have sufficient receptor affinity to GH in the post-teen years. A number of athletes claim that GH is not that effective on its own, but in a stack with steroids it can do remarkable things. Perhaps there is some type of actual synegism created by the concomitant use of these two agents. Empirical data suggests that the efficacy of GH is dose related and that the majority of users may not have been taking enough of it to get positive results.
Despite speculation concerning its efficacy, syntheric GH is being used by thousands of elite athletes. These include men and women bodybuilders, strength ath- letes, as well as a multitude of Olympic competitors. Although Growth Hormone is banned by athletic committees, there is no method for the detection of it which allows drug tested competitors to use this product freely without any ramifications. Adverse reactions to GH use are rare but technically could involve acromegaly (elongation of the feet, forehead and hands). Other possible side effects involve overgrowth of the elbows or jaw, thickening of the skin and a type of diabetes.
There are numerous counterfeit versions of this product which are merely cashing in on the drug’s mystique and high price tag. The legitimate versions must be refrigerated at all times, before and after they are reconstituted.
Effective dosages, seem to be in the area of 2 I.U., 2 - 4 times a week.
Cycle length is usually determined by how long the athlete can afford it. Some take the product for 6 week cycles, others use it year round. Legitimate GH is hard to find, when it does show up, it sells for as much as $250 for 4 I.U.
Wlliam Llewellyn (2011) - Anabolics
L. Rea (2002) - Chemical Muscle Enhancement Bodybuilders Desk Reference
Anabolic Steroid Guide
Newbies Research Guide